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「ぼくの語学学習法」などというと、「おれは語学が得意だからその勉強の極意を教えてしんぜよう」という印象をあたえてしまうかもしれませんが、そうではなく、「語学があまり得意でない人間(つまり、ぼく)がいかに語学を勉強してきたか」のほうが、秀才たちの手ぎわがよすぎてあまり参考にならないような語学勉強法より「これから何か語学をやろう」という人にとって励みになる部分があるのではないかとの前提に立ち、鈍才たるぼくがどのように泥臭く語学を勉強してきたかについてちょっとお話ししようと思います。

発音について
発音にかんしてぼくは、どの言語についても「読めればいいや」といい加減にやってきてしまいましたが、ネットでネイティブの人たちの発音をかんたんにいくらでも聞くことができる昨今、ぼくのようないい加減さは見習うべきではありません。最初のうちに発音をしっかりやっておけば、学びはじめにかりそめ「どうせ読むだけだし」と思っていたにしても、のちのち「やっぱりしゃべれたらいいな」と思ったときに有利であることは言うまでもありませんし、何より、五感をあたうかぎり総動員して勉強したほうが記憶の定着もよろしいでしょうから。

文法について
文法についてはまず、薄手の文法書にざっと目を通し、それを自分でまとめ直します。そのさい、あまり時間をかけずに(時間に都合がつくのであれば丸一日つぶして)自分用のまとめを作るところまで持っていけると、すぐに読解の練習に取りかかれるので、「文法の勉強だけで息切れしてしまう」という事態が避けられてよいです(語学の勉強に挫折してしまうというのは、おもにこうした「息切れ」ゆえと思われますので)。また、まとめを作るときには、ルーズリーフ等、のちのちの追加および順番の組み換えが容易なものを利用することをおすすめします(ぼくは現在、下の写真のように、インデックスカードを使っています)。この段階で文法事項をぜんぶ覚えてしまおうと意気ごむ必要はありません。まとめはあくまで、下で述べる読解のさいの「あんちょこ」として機能すればじゅうぶんです。文法の詳細は、読解を通じてじょじょに身につけてゆけばよいでしょう(ただ、文法のうちある程度不変の部分、つまり、冠詞や前置詞や接続詞などは、それなりに早い段階で覚えこんでしまうと、品詞の当たりがつけやすくなり、よいようです)。なお、文法の詳細を学ぶにさいしては、まとめを作るのに用いた薄手のものとはべつに、ある程度の分厚さのものを用意しておくと、文章を読むなかで途方に暮れることが少なくなります。



語彙について
基本的に語彙は、実地に文章を読むなかで少しづつ身につけていけばよいと思うのですが、それとはべつに、ごく小ぶりの辞書を「読む」というのも効果的なようです。そういう小ぶりな辞典としては、白水社から出ているパスポート初級辞典シリーズがいいと思います。

辞書について
上で述べた「読む」辞典とはべつに、じっさいに文章を読むにあたって「使う」辞典も用意するべきです。そのさい、文法書にかんして上で述べたのと同様に、「使う」辞典としてはそれなりに詳しい、かつ例文の豊富なものが「単語の、文章のなかでのじっさいの使われ方」が分かっていいでしょう。

読解について
読解の練習には、まずノートを一冊用意し、そこに読解するべきテキストを数行おきに写します。そして、書き写したテキストとテキストのあいだの数行に文法事項や単語の意味を書きこんでいくのです(下の写真参照)。ある程度まとまった量のテキストにかんしてそうした作業を行ったら、書き写した元のテキストを何も参照せずに読み返してみます。おそらく、一回目に何の助けもなく書き写した元のテキストを読んだとき、あまり理解のほどはよくないでしょう。その場合、文法事項や単語の意味を書きこんだノートを見返し、また何も参照せずに元のテキストを読むのです。そして、この「何も参照せず元のテキストを読む→文法事項や単語の意味を書きこんだノートを見返す」という工程を、何も参照しないでも元のテキストをまあまあ理解できるという段階にいたるまでくりかえします。(この方法は、ぼくが大学生のときにラテン語の授業で教授されたものですが、すこぶる効果的です)


(上の例では、三行おきにテキストを書き写し、その三行の余白に文法事項や単語の意味が書きこんであります。大きめの画像はこちらから)

以上、くだくだしく述べてきましたが、基本は、語学を学ぶ誰もが賛同するであろうように、「実地に文章を読むなかで、文法を固め、語彙を増す」ということです。そのさい大事なのは、うまずたゆまず文章を読みつづけるということで、これがもしかすると語学を勉強するさいのいちばんの障壁になるかもしれませんが、上に述べたことがいささかなりとも「くじけずに文章を読みつづける」ことに資することができたならさいわいです。
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こんにちは。とても参考になりました。

質問させてください。

実地に文章を読む中で知らない単語に出会ったとき、英単語を辞書で引きますと、ずらずらといろんな意味が載っていると思いますが、実地の文章に合致する意味だけに注目して覚える形でいいのでしょうか。
今は原義に着目して、各例文を読み、原義からどうにかほとんどの意味を理解できるように努力しています。
tanachun 2014/09/09(Tue)14:15:24 編集
こんにちは。

単語の意味を覚えるとき、辞書に羅列されているものをすべて覚えてやろうと意気ごむと、けっきょくはどれもあやふやになってしまう場合が多からんと思われるので、まずはその単語に出くわした文章中での意味を覚えることに専心したほうがよいと思われます。ただ、ある単語を覚えるさい、そこに羅列されている語義群に目を通し、その主要な語義と思われるもの、および語源を印象にとどめるようにすると、単語のネットワークを広げるいいよすがになりますので、こうしたこともあまり気負わず、「ついでに」といった感じでやるといいと思います。
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